Overall, the conference worked on the theme of Discovery, Impact and Innovation and aimed to provide an opportunity to reflect on the progress of Open Access and to consider the strategic advantages these developments bring to the research sector more generally. A broad spectrum of policy and research management issues were covered including advocacy, open innovation and alternative metrics.
There was a huge amount covered in the two days, and as always the opportunity to meet colleagues face to face after in some cases years of online collaboration was a highlight. The conference was filmed and the video recordings are linked on this page from presentations from Day One and Day Two below. The full program can be downloaded here.
This blog will summarise some of the key messages that emerged from the discussions. A caveat – these are a tiny sample of the whole event. For a bigger perspective see the Twitter feed: #OAR2013conf
Global and National Open Access Developments
The first day focused on Global and National Open Access Developments. The sessions covered the breadth of recent international initiatives. Key messages are below
- The current publishing model is not sustainable.
In the future the dominant model of publishing will have the web as the distribution. Managing and controlling a publishing environment of global publishers will be difficult. The ARC cannot be too prescriptive about open access models because it funds across so many domains. – Prof Aidan Byrne | Australian Research Council
- The public remain depressingly confused about open access.
The web has been around for 20 years, after 10 years of monitoring the debates about open access it became clear that high profile universities in the USA and Europe were not going to take the lead on the policy front. QUT then started implementing an open access policy in 2003. It took less than a year before it was endorsed by the University Academic Board. Prof Tom Cochrane | Queensland University of Technology
- It is extremely important to ensure the definition of open access is consistent and includes detail about reuse of material.
Reuse included machine analysis of information. It is difficult to retrospectively add details into policies. It is also very helpful to tie this policy into existing policy platforms. The NIH policy has been extremely successful and more than 2/3 of the users of the research are outside the academy – Developing a Framework for Open Access Policies in the United States Heather Joseph | Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition, United States
- Having good open access requires: good policy development, infrastructure to support the open access system and advocacy of the policy.
Despite the gobsmackingly complex area that is European politics, they have managed to pull off the Horizon2020 policy development. The policy is consistent across the European Union and beyond. Part of the reason it succeeded was a huge campaign of 18,000 signatures from the research community. – Open Access Developments in Europe Dr Alma Swan | Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition, Europe
- Australia is building real momentum in the open access area.
Now one quarter of Australian institutions have open access policies, there are several open access monograph presses, and both government funding bodies are mandating open access to funded research outputs – Open Access Developments in Australia Dr Danny Kingsley | Australian Open Access Support Group
- Chinese publishers are increasingly ambitious in the international market.
Publication in China is oriented towards evaluation of academia, and is only undertaken by state owned publishers, many enjoying subsidy from the government. There are about 1000 open access journals in China, many with a higher than average impact factor. The centralised platform of 89 institutional repositories called GRID (Chinese Academy of Science IR) – with over 400,000 full text items. – Open Access Developments in China Dr Xiang Ren | University of Southern Queensland
- India is a net importer of knowledge – so open access helps India.
While India is not playing a significant role in open science and scholarship it is addressing ‘open’ issues elsewhere. There is a National Repository for open education, India has adopted the AustLI model for access to legal Acts, there are also interesting developments in the patent space to allow access to cheaper drugs. – Opening India Prof Shamnad Basheer | National University of Juridical Sciences, India
- A good policy requires deposit immediately on acceptance for publication.
This ensures things are deposited and there are ways to allow researchers to have access to papers even during the embargoes. Waiting until the end of an embargo potentially loses use and application during that period – OA: A Short History of the Problem and Its Solution Prof Stevan Harnad | University of Southampton, United Kingdom
- It is good to reach out to communities in their own language.
Open access advocacy in developing countries uses a range of tools, from high level stakeholders and influential researchers through to radio talk shows and actively engaging the community. Tools like usage statistics and live examples have proved successful. Open Access Advocacy in Developing and Transition Countries Iryna Kuchma | Electronic Information for Libraries, Ukraine
- The open and networked web can be exploited to solve complex scientific problems.
For this to work it is important to have research outcomes that are reproducible or repurposable. It requires communicating research to different audiences who have different needs for support and functionality. Currently we do not have the data or models we need to analyse the system of scholarly outputs. We must not lose control of data into proprietary hands. Network Ready Research: Architectures and Instrumentation for Effective Scholarship Dr Cameron Neylon | Public Library of Science, United Kingdom
- Altmetrics are a researcher’s footprint in the community.
They complement traditional metrics and research evaluation. Researchers thinking about a research impact strategy and funding agencies might want to include an impact statement in their Final Reports. – Altmetrics as Indicators of Public Impact Pat Loria | Charles Sturt University
- Welcome and opening address – Judy Stokker, Prof Aidan Byrne, Prof Tom Cochrane
- Session 1: The State of Open Access: United States and Europe – Heather Joseph & Dr Alma Swan
- Session 2: The State of Open Access: Australia and Asia – Dr Danny Kingsley, Dr Xiang Ren, Prof Shamnad Basheer
- Session 3: Advocacy & Advantage – Prof Stevan Harnad, Iryna Kuchma & Academic panel: Marcus Foth, Alex Holcombe, Matthew Todd & Barry Watson
- Session 4: Research Networks and Metrics – Dr Cameron Neylon & Pat Loria
Open Data, Open Innovation and Open Access Publishing
The second day featured thematic sessions – focusing on specific areas of research and information management necessary to the advancement of Open Access. Specifically Open Data, Open Innovation and Open Access Publishing. Key messages:
- Having a mandate alone is not enough.
An empty repository is useless, a partly filled repository is partly useless. It doesn’t work spontaneously – there is a need for an institutional policy that must be enforced. The Liege repository has 60,000+ items with 60% full text available – as only articles are mandated. The average number of downloads for items is 61.73. – Perspectives of a Vice-Chancellor Prof Bernard Rentier | University of Liège, Belgium
- The patent system is supposed to lubricate the system but is increasingly throwing sand into the gears.
Copyright protects expression and patents protect functionality. Strong patents mean people make investments in order for people to convert ideas into product. However there is increasing concern that actual and potential litigation are not just costly but actually inhibiting innovation. The Economics of Open Innovation Prof Adam Jaffe | Motu Economic and Public Policy Research, New Zealand
- Open stuff is useless unless you can translate it to something that means something.
We are no longer moving physical things, we are now moving information through the knowledge space. Because patents are jurisdictional there are many other countries that can use the patented information. The new facility The Lens is a map of the patent world allowing innovators worldwide to access all of the knowledge held in the patent system. “Solving the Problem of Problem Solving”: How Open Access will Shift the Demographics of Innovation to Create a More Fair Society and More Resilient Global Economy. Prof Richard Jefferson | Cambia
- If monographs are behind paywalls when journals are free there is a problem for monographs.
The systems supporting scholarly communication via the monograph are falling down. Under the Knowledge Unlatched model libraries from around the world collaborate to share the publications. This spreads the costs of OA across many institutions globally. It ensures HSS books are accessible as OA journals. Libraries should avoid double dipping – if they were going to buy the titles on the startup list, sign up for KU instead. Knowledge Unlatched Dr Lucy Montgomery | Knowledge Unlatched
- It is not adequate to ignore the humanities and say ‘we will deal with monographs later’
With monographs IP is not about capitalism but it is recompensation for the professional labour of editorial input that is significant and inherent to the quality of the product. The format is not important in policy setting (pixels or print). Ideally there would be a shared infrastructure that everyone can tap into, but this needs startup assistance. Free as in Love: the Humanities and Creative Arts in Open Access Publishing Dr John Byron | Book Industry Collaborative Council
- We need to be thinking of knowledge as a network and an infrastructure – a common intellectual conversation and a quest for knowledge.
At the core scholarly communication is about communicating new knowledge. The default price on items online. The marginal cost of serving one more copy of an article is zero (more or less). The license is the one thing that does not cost anything – the more people reading doesn’t change the first copy costs. The question is how to charge for what actually costs money. There is a need to protect and retain core business but innovate on the non-core processes. Innovation in the Age of Open Access Publishing Dr Caroline Sutton | Co-Action Publishing, Sweden
- Session 5 : Perspectives of a Vice Chancellor – Prof Bernard Rentier
- Session 6 : Open Data – Prof Ross Wilkinson & Prof Marco Farmi
- Session 7 : Open Innovation – Prof Richard Jefferson, Prof Adam Jaffe
- Session 8 : Open Access Publishing – Dr Lucy Montgomery, Dr John Byron, Dr Caroline Sutton
- Closing remarks – Prof Tom Cochrane